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情態動詞講義
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情態動詞講義
作者:高一英語組  日期/時間:2018/6/24 22:51:00  點擊:560  我要評論

      

高一英語情態動詞語法講義

一、             情態動詞的用法和意義

1 cancould的用法
1. 表示能力或客觀可能性,還可以表示請求和允許。如:
can you finish this work tonight?
man cannot live without air.
— can i go now?   — yes, you can.
注意:could也可表示請求,預期委婉,主要用于疑問句,不可用于肯定句,答語應用can(即could不能用于現在時態的簡略答語中)。如:
   could i come to see you tomorrow?
   yes, you can.
(否定答語可用no, im afraid not.
     
can表示能力時,還可用be able to代替。如:
   ill not be able to come this afternoon.
2.
表示驚異、懷疑、不相信的態度。(主要用在否定句、疑問句或驚嘆句中)
can this be true?
how can you be so careless!
this cannot be done by him.

2 maymight的用法
1. 表示許可。
表示請求、允許時,mightmany的語氣更委婉一些,否定回答時要用mustnt表示不可以禁止阻止之意。如:
you may drive the car.
— might i use your pen?   — no, you mustnt.
may i ... 征詢對方許可在文體上比較正式,在口氣上比較客氣。在日常口語中,用can i ... 征詢對方意見在現代口語中更為常見。
2.
用于祈使句中表示祝愿。如:
may you succeed!
3.
表示推測、可能(疑問句不能用于此意)。
he may be very busy now.

3 musthave to的用法
1. 表示必須、必要。如:
you must come in time.
回答must引出的問句時,如果是否定的回答,不能用mustnt,而要用needntdont have to
— must we hand in our exercise books today?
— yes, you must. (no, you don’t have to.)
2. “must be +
表語的結構表示推測,它的否定或疑問式用can代替must
   this must be your pen.
3. have to
的含義與must相似,兩者往往可以互換使用,但have to有各種形式,隨have的變化而定。musthave to有下列幾點不同:
must表示的是說話人的主觀看法,而have to則往往強調客觀需要。如:
the play is not interesting. i really must go now.
i had to work when i was your age.
must一般只表現在,have則有更多的時態形式。
二者的否定意義不大相同。如:
you mustnt go.
你可不要去。
you dont have to go.
你不必去。
詢問對方的意愿時應用must。如:
must i clean all the room?

4 dareneed的用法
1. need表示需要必須,作情態動詞時,僅用于否定句或疑問句中,在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to,should代替。如:
you needn’t come so early.
— need i finish the work today?
— yes, you must.
注意:neednt + 不定式的完成式表示本來不必做某事而實際上做了某事。如:
you neednt have waited for me.
2. dare
作情態動詞時,主要用于疑問句、否定句和條件從句中,一般不用在肯定句中。如:
how dare you say im unfair.
he darent speak english before such a crowd, dare he?
3. dare
need常用作實義動詞,有時態、人稱和數的變化,所不同的是,作實義動詞時,在肯定句中,dare后面通常接帶to的不定式,在否定和疑問句中,dare后面可接帶to或不帶to的不定式。如:
i dare to swim across this river.
he does not dare (to) answer.
dont you dare (to) touch it!
i wondered he dare (to) say that.
he needs to finish it this evening.

5 shallshould的用法
1. shall用于第一、第三人稱疑問句中,表示說話人征求對方的意見或向對方請示。如:
shall we begin our lesson?
when shall he be able to leave the hospital?
2. shall
用于第二、第三人稱,表示說話人給對方命令、警告、允諾或威脅。如:
you shall fail if you dont work harder.
(警告)
he shall have the book when i finish reading.
(允諾)
he shall be punished.
(威脅)
4. should
表示勸告、建議、命令,其同義詞是ought to;在疑問句中,通常用should代替ought to。如:
you should go to class right away.
should i open the window?
should
的含義較多,用法較活,現介紹三種其特殊用法。請看下面的句子:
i should think it would be better to try it again. 我倒是認為最好再試一試。
you are mistaken, i should say. 依我看,你是搞錯了。
i should advise you not to do that. 我倒是勸你別這樣做。
this is something i should have liked to ask you. 這是我本來想問你的。
從以上例句可以看出:情態動詞should用于第一人稱時可以表示說話人的一種謙遜、客氣、委婉的語氣。
should
還可以用在if引導的條件從句,表示一件事聽起來可能性很小,但也不是完全沒有可能。相當于萬一的意思。從句謂語由should加動詞原形構成,主句謂語卻不一定用虛擬語氣。如:
ask her to ring me up if you should see her. 你萬一見到她,請讓她給我打個電話。
if you should change your mind, please let us know. 萬一你改變主意,請通知我們。
should i (if i should) be free tomorrow i will come. 萬一我明天有時間,我就來。
此外,why(or how) + should結構表示說話人對某事不能理解,感到意外、驚異等意思。意為竟會。如:
why should you be so late today? 你幾天怎么來得這么晚?
— where is betty living? — 貝蒂住在哪里?
— how should i know? —
我怎么會知道呢?
i dont know why you should think that i did it. 我真不知道你憑什么認為這件事是我干的。

6 willwould的用法
1. 表示請求、建議等,wouldwill委婉客氣。如:
would you pass me the book?
2.
表示意志、愿望和決心。如:
i will never do that again.
they asked if we would do that again.
3. would
可表示過去反復發生的動作或某中傾向。would表過去習慣時比used to正式,并沒有現已無此習慣的含義。如:
the wound would not heal.
during the vacation he would visit me every week.
4.
表料想或猜想。如:
it would be about ten when he left home.
what would she be doing there?
i thought he would have told you all about it.

7 ought to的用法
1. ought to
表示應該。如:
you ought to take care of him.
2.
表示推測。注意與must表示推測時的區別:
he must be at home by now.
(斷定他已到家)
he ought to be home by now.
(不十分肯定)
this is where the oil must be.
(比較直率)
this is where the oil ought to be.
(比較含蓄)
注意:在美國英語中,ought to用于否定句和疑問句時,to可以省略。如:
ought you smoke so much?
you oughtnt smoke so much.

8 used tohad betterwould rather的用法
1. used to表示過去的習慣動作或狀態,現在已不存在,在間接引語中,其形式可不變。如:
he told us he used to play football when he was young.
在疑問句、否定句、否定疑問句或強調句中,可有兩種形式:
疑問句
did you use to go to the same school as your brother?
used you to go to the same school as your brother?
否定句
i usednt to go there.
i didnt use to go there.
usednt
亦可拼作usent,但發音皆為[ju:znt]
否定疑問句
usent you to be interested in the theatre?
 didnt you use to be interested in the theatre?
強調句
i certainly used to smoke, but it was a long time ago.
 i certainly did use to smoke, but it was a long time ago.
其反意疑問句或簡略回答中,也有兩種形式:
she used to be very fat, didnt she?
(正式)/ use(d)nt she? (口語)
did you use to play chess? yes, i did.
used you to get up early in the morning? yes, i did. (yes, i used to.)
2. had better
意為最好,后接不帶to的不定式。如:
— we had better go now.
— yes, we had (wed better / we had better).
hadnt we better stop now? (had we better not stop now?)
i think id better be going.
(用于進行時態,表最好立即
you had better have done that.
(用于完成時態,表未完成動作)
注:had besthad better同意,但較少用。you had better … 用于同輩或小輩,對長輩不可用。
3. would rather
意為寧愿,表選擇,后接不帶to的不定式。如:
id rather not say anything.
would you rather work on a farm?
— wouldnt you rather stay here?
— no, i would not. id rather go there.
由于would rather表選擇,因而后可接than。如:
i would rather work on a farm than in a factory.
i would rather watch tv than go to see the film.
i would rather lose a dozen cherry trees than that you should tell me one lie.
id rather you didnt talk about this to anyone.
(句中的d rather不是情態動詞,would在此是表愿望的實義動詞)

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